One of the last people that I expected John Hattie to mention in his latest book is Taylor Swift. But, there she was. Hattie wrote of a time he was in Brussels and had a few hours to spare before flying home. He opted for the sunshine and warmth of the city center and quickly noticed three teenage girls:
[The girls] were trying to imitate the dance move Taylor Swift performs in the video to her song ‘Shake it Off.’ It was impressive to see how the three girls exerted themselves, how they tried again and again to get a little further into the song, with what intensity they discussed and practiced the moves, copying and correcting each other, how they took mistakes as an opportunity, and – last but not least – how much fun they had doing it. Learning was visible in these moments. An hour flew by as I watched, and I left of the airport as the three girls continued to practice. I asked myself: Why can’t school be like this? (p. 160)
10 Mindframes for Visible Learning: Teaching for Success, by John Hattie and Klaus Zierer, is a compelling read, and more accessible than some of Hattie’s previous books. Organized into eleven chapters – the ten mindframes and the authors’ vision for education for all students – the book is one of those “must reads” for all teachers and leaders committed to professional growth.
For those who might not be aware of Australian educator John Hattie, he spent most of his adult education career examining studies of effective teaching and learning. It took him more than 15 years to publish Visible Learning, a compilation of his “meta-analysis” research that provided a listing of teacher and student actions/steps, rated by learning effectiveness. The impact of his work has been enormous.
Each chapter in 10 Mindframes begins with a self-reflection questionnaire that the reader completes and is invited to revisit at the end of the chapter. A vignette that brings the highlighted mindframe to life comes next. Each chapter also includes a short section titled “What is this chapter about?” and another highlighting “Which factors from Visible Learning support this mindframe?” Every chapter also offers a “Where can I start” section, along with a checklist and suggested exercises.
The hinge effect
In his first book, Visible Learning, Hattie highlighted teacher and student actions that achieved at least a 0.4 impact annually (the “hinge” point). When translated into non-research terminology, it means that if this action or strategy is used consistently and effectively in the classroom, it could result in a year’s growth for students. You can review the latest update of Hattie’s list here.
The 10 Mindframes
- I am an evaluator of my impact on student learning.
- I see assessment as informing my impact and next steps.
- I collaborate with my peers and my students about my conceptions of progress and my impact.
- I am a change agent and believe all students can improve.
- I strive for challenge and not merely ‘doing your best’
- I gave and help students understand feedback and I interpret and act on feedback given to me.
- I engage as much in dialogue and monologue.
- I explicitly inform students what successful impact looks like from the outset.
- I build relationships and trust so that learning can occur in a place where it is safe to make mistakes and learn from others.
- I focus on learning and the language of learning.
For some discussion about each mindframe, read this Corwin Connect blog post.
A summary in my tweets
There is so much wisdom included in this book that I tweeted—a lot—about it as I was reading. You can find those tweets at @al_bpc. Scroll down to see where they start. The early ones were retweeted from my personal account. (Look in time period from January 17 to January 26.) I’ve sprinkled a few (with added comments from Jackie Walsh) throughout this post.
Direct instruction may not be what you think it is
There are many insights and “surprises” in the book. For example, in the “I Engage as Much In Dialogue as Monologue” chapter, Hattie explains what direct instruction is and isn’t.
Direct instruction is near the top of the rankings, with an effect size of 0.59, but it is very misunderstood…so often direct instruction is misinterpreted as teacher talking, following scripts built by others and mechanically following a set of recipes. Indeed, this is not direct instruction (p. 109).(Video) John Hattie on Visible Learning and Feedback in the Classroom
Instead, Hattie explains, direct instruction requires teachers to provide students with clear learning targets, accompanied by success criteria (what mastery looks like). In direct instruction, teachers “build commitment and engagement in the learning task.” Throughout the lesson, teachers model, check for understanding and provide “worked examples.” Teachers use “guided practice” to ensure students understand the concept and solve problems correctly. And, this is followed by independent practice.
Because of the rampant misunderstanding of direct instruction, Hattie prefers to call it “deliberate teaching and learning (DTL)”. He explains, “DTL is, therefore, a type of instruction in which both the teacher and the learners know precisely who is supposed to do what, when, why, how, and where and with whom they are supposed to do it” (p. 110).
No wonder DTL, aka direct instruction, shows such a high impact on learning!
Using jigsaws for learning and lesson planning
Later in the same chapter, Hattie explains the power of using the jigsaw activity, which has an impact of 1.09. Those of you who have participated in Jackie Walsh’s and my professional learning are familiar with the jigsaw protocol, in which participants learn more about a concept by “dividing and conquering.”
In a jigsaw, each learner in a small group is assigned a part of a concept to read and learn about. They then meet for discussion and meaning-making with learners from other small groups who were assigned the same topic. Next, they return to their original “home table” group to teach their colleagues about what they’ve learned. In turn, their home table colleagues teach them about their specific assignment.
In the book, Hattie suggests a way that the jigsaw can be used for lesson planning. He suggests that, ideally, teachers be seated at five tables of five teachers each, with each person assigned a specific Visible Learning influence. For example, at each table, a teacher would study one of these five influences so that all five were studied:
- Classroom Discussion
- Teacher Clarity
- Collaborative Grouping
- Direct Instruction
- Class Size
After meeting with others assigned their same topic, teachers would return to their “home table” to share what they’ve learned. Each table would then review a pre-selected lesson plan to consider the content and delivery of the lesson related to the studied influences (pp. 112-113).
Hattie and Zierer have a dream
The visionary conclusion of 10 Mindframes for Visible Learning literally brought me to my feet. Reading it was uplifting because of the power of the words, which are both challenging and inspiring.
Hattie and Zierer organize their vision using Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. If you have an Amazon account you can sign in, go to the book page, click on the cover, and search for “vision” or “page 166” and read their “vision of a school for the future.” I’ve excerpted just the beginning of their dream here:
We want all students to learn precious and productive knowledge—to critique, reorganize, disrupt, and celebrate this knowledge and to learn what they would not learn if they did not come to school.(Video) John Hattie: Visible Learning and Effective Feedback
The purpose of education should never be to meet the needs of children; what a lowly aspiration this is that helps keep kids in their place—the rich man in the castle, the poor boy and girl at the gate. The purpose of education should not be to help students reach their potential, as again this lowers the aspirations for many and defeats the purpose of schooling.
Theprimepurpose of education is to help students exceed what they think is their potential. To see in students something they may not see in themselves and to imbue them with our passion for learning.
So, don’t wait. Order your copy of 10 Mindframes for Visible Learning. You’ll find it both inspiring and challenging. And, it just might change the way you look at teaching, coaching, and leading schools.
John Hattie. 'Visible Learning means an enhanced role for teachers as they become evaluators of. their own teaching. Visible Teaching and Learning occurs when teachers see learning through the eyes of students and help them become their own teachers' (Hattie, 2014).
We're going to find an effect size by taking the average of a post-assessment. - an average for pre-
- displaying clear learning intentions and goals.
- jointly constructing challenging success criteria.
- using a range of learning strategies.
- knowing when students are not progressing and assisting them.
- providing immediate and relevant feedback.
- Setting goals. ...
- Structuring lessons. ...
- Explicit teaching. ...
- Worked examples. ...
- Collaborative learning. ...
- Multiple exposures. ...
- Questioning. ...
Visible Learning means that students know what they need to learn, how to learn it, and how to evaluate their own progress. Using the Visible Learning approach, teachers become evaluators of their own impact on student learning. The combination causes students to drive their own learning.
Visible teaching and learning occurs when thinking and learning processes are visible, meaningful, shareable and amplified. to build trust and rapport so that students will ask for help and take risks with their learning.
Visual learning also helps students to develop visual thinking, which is a learning style whereby the learner comes better to understand and retain information better by associating ideas, words and concepts with images.
According to Hattie's findings, visible learning occurs when teachers see learning through the eyes of students and help them become their own teachers.
Hattie's work (2009) provided a definition of effect sizes from 0.4 to 0.7 as moderate and effect sizes of 0.7 and up as in the zone of desired effects.
Effect size scores will typically range about -2.0 to +2.0, but could range from +/- infinity as the normal curve never touches the baseline. In theory, you could have many standard deviations above or below the average. Generally, effect sizes will range from -. 5 to +1.75 in most educational contexts.
Cohen suggested that d = 0.2 be considered a 'small' effect size, 0.5 represents a 'medium' effect size and 0.8 a 'large' effect size. This means that if the difference between two groups' means is less than 0.2 standard deviations, the difference is negligible, even if it is statistically significant.
Visibility will provide students with feelings of acceptance and security at school each day. Teachers will share their passion for teaching, celebrate student accomplishments, and seek support and advice for teaching difficulties. Parents will feel confident in the leader of the school.
Visible Learning helps the teachers to identify the present level of the students at learning and the desired level to which they have to reach and then to rate the progress using certain techniques to reach the targeted level.
Visible Learning for Teachers aims at 'making learning visible' and helping teachers to see learning through the eyes of their students. It also helps teachers to find out how to seek and provide appropriate feedback that helps students getting forward.
Visual learning is defined as the assimilation of information from visual formats. Learners understand information better in the classroom when they see it.
- 8 Strategies Robert Marzano & John Hattie Agree On.
- Strategy 1: A Clear Focus for the Lesson.
- Strategy 2: Offer Overt Instruction.
- Strategy 3: Get the Students to Engage With the Content.
- Strategy 4: Give Feedback.
- Strategy 5: Multiple Exposures.
- Strategy 6: Have Students Apply Their Knowledge.
Professor John Hattie
His research interests include performance indicators, models of measurement and evaluation of teaching and learning. John Hattie became known to a wider public with his two books Visible Learning and Visible Learning for teachers.
While best practice for assessment is controversial amongst academics, Hattie believes that, when used appropriately, tests can be a great tool for teachers and students. He believes that tests can reveal what impact teaching has had on students, and which students it has impacted.